Current situation and development of fuel cell vehicle industry chain in China
It is urgent to develop hydrogen energy and fuel cell industry in China. In the past 19 years, China's dependence on foreign oil and natural gas was 70.8% and 43% respectively. In recent years, the self-sufficiency rate of crude oil and natural gas has decreased year by year, and China's energy security has a certain potential threat. The hydrogen energy and fuel cell industry will help China to fulfill the promise of reducing carbon dioxide emissions in the Paris Agreement. By 2030, China's total non fossil energy consumption will reach 20%, and hydrogen energy can be used as an energy source Energy interconnection and renewable energy storage media; the rapid growth of China's car ownership has caused certain pressure on the environment, the development of new energy vehicles is imperative, the zero emission characteristics of fuel cell vehicles can help the sustainable development of China's automobile industry; electric vehicles are limited by battery life and power grid capacity, and the shortage of charging space also limits the development of electric vehicles Fuel cell vehicles make up for the shortage of electric vehicles to a certain extent. "Promoting the utilization of hydrogen energy and developing the fuel cell vehicle industry chain meet the needs of breaking through key technologies, promoting the energy technology revolution and the transformation and upgrading of China's automobile industry." Zhang Tong said.
At present, China has established a FC powertrain technology platform with independent intellectual property rights, formed a supporting R & D system for key parts such as fuel cell engine, power cell, DC / DC converter, drive motor, hydrogen storage and supply system, formed a 100 vehicle fuel cell production capacity, and completed large-scale demonstration operation.
In terms of hydrogen production, domestic hydrogen production is still dominated by fossil energy, and more and more attention has been paid to industrial by-product hydrogen production. The route of chlor alkali industrial by-product hydrogen can meet the hydrogen demand of fuel cell vehicles downstream of the industrial chain, and hydrogen production by electrolyzing water with photovoltaic wind power and other renewable energy has become the ultimate energy solution.
In terms of hydrogen storage, high-pressure gaseous hydrogen storage technology accounts for more than 90% of the market. Research on fixed high-pressure hydrogen storage technology and solid hydrogen storage materials has reached the international level. However, the hydrogen storage mass density of domestic vehicle mounted high-pressure hydrogen storage tank is 3%, which has not reached the level of 6.5%.
In terms of hydrogen transportation, pipeline transportation is suitable for large-scale transportation of hydrogen. At present, several 50 km long hydrogen transportation pipelines with pressure of 2 ~ 4 MPa are in operation in China, but the layout of the pipeline network needs to be improved.
In terms of filling, the combination of external hydrogen supply and high-pressure gaseous hydrogen used in domestic hydrogenation stations will accelerate the development of liquid hydrogen with larger unit hydrogen storage capacity and no need of high energy consumption gas compression link in the future.
As of November 2020, 88 hydrogenation stations have been built in China, 27 more than that in 2019, of which 80 have been put into operation. These hydrogenation stations are mainly concentrated in Beijing Tianjin Hebei, Yangtze River Delta and Pearl River Delta. It is estimated that by the end of 2020, the number of hydrogenation stations in China will reach 100, and 1000 will be completed by 2030. As of July 2020, China has promoted 7200 fuel cell vehicles, becoming the country with the largest number of fuel cell commercial vehicles in the world, mainly in the Yangtze River Delta, Pearl River Delta and Beijing Tianjin region.
Compared with five years ago, the performance of domestic fuel cell stack has been greatly improved, especially in the aspect of stack life. The service life of the stack with graphene plate has been increased from 3000 hours to 12000 hours. The power of the stack is increased from 35kw to more than 48kW, the power density (metal plate) of the stack is increased from 2.0kw/l to more than 3.0kw/l, and the service life of the metal plate stack is increased from 3000 hours to 5000 hours. The start-up temperature decreased from - 20 ℃ to - 30 ℃, and the maximum efficiency increased from 55% to 60%.
As of November 2020, the 11th batch of new energy vehicles recommended catalog, the power of 30 ~ 40kW accounted for 6.7%, the power of 40 ~ 50KW accounted for 16.17%, the power of 50 ~ 60kW accounted for 16.18%, the proportion of more than 60kW accounted for 53.58%. "Through data comparison, we can see that China's fuel cell vehicle technology has made great progress." Zhang Tong said.
In fuel cell stack, key material system and core components, a number of manufacturers have emerged in China. The performance of domestic reactors has reached the international average level, and the leading enterprises have reached the world level. However, on the whole, there is still room for improvement in specific power, start-up technology and efficiency. The product technology has not yet been verified by industrialized and large-scale production process, and the cost still has room for substantial price reduction. There is a certain gap between proton exchange membrane and catalyst.
China's fuel cell vehicles are mainly dominated by commercial vehicles, with 746 commercial vehicles (up to the first half of 2020), accounting for 90%. The application scale of China's fuel cell commercial vehicles is in the forefront of the world. China's fuel cell commercial vehicles mainly adopt the hybrid technology route of electricity and electricity. Compared with foreign countries, China's fuel cell commercial vehicles have certain advantages in driving range and vehicle cost. China's fuel cell commercial vehicles generally reach the driving range of 500km, and when the maximum speed reaches 80km, - 30 ℃ cold start.
For the sustainable development of hydrogen energy and fuel cell industry, Professor Zhang Tong put forward several suggestions
1. Strengthen the top-level design, attach importance to the position of hydrogen energy in the field of energy consumption, guide the public to have a correct understanding of hydrogen energy and fuel cell vehicles, and strengthen infrastructure construction.
2. In the process of fuel cell vehicle industry transformation from policy dependence to market driven, we should maintain certain favorable policies and guide the industry to the right track.
3. Adhere to the demonstration and application of fuel cell vehicles to promote cost reduction on a large scale.
4. To tackle the key and difficult problems in the existing technical problems, promote the establishment and improvement of the industrial chain with the development of technology, and realize the localization and mass production of key parts.
5. We should strengthen the cooperation between colleges and enterprises, encourage universities and research institutes to transform their research achievements into practical products, establish and improve the development and cultivation process of industry talents, and support international academic exchanges and cooperation.
6. Organize the formulation of relevant standards and regulations for hydrogen and fuel cell vehicles, improve the regulatory system, and strengthen safety management.
7. In practice, we should continue to supplement the standard content, improve the standard system, and learn from foreign advanced experience to ensure the steady development of China's fuel cell industry.
Under the guidance of policy and market, China's hydrogen and fuel cell vehicles will be on the fast track. In his speech, Professor Zhang Tong listed the indicators for the future, which gave us a clearer understanding. By 2025, the number of fuel cell vehicles in China will reach 100000, the driving range of fuel cell commercial vehicles will exceed 500 km, the economy of passenger cars will be less than 5.5 kg / 100 km, the service life will be more than 400000 km, and the cost will be less than 1 million yuan. The starting temperature of fuel cell engine is less than - 40 ℃, the maximum efficiency is more than 60%, the power density is more than 400W / kg, and the service life is more than 20000 hours. The driving range of fuel cell passenger vehicle is more than 650 km, the economy is less than 1.0 kg / 100 km, the service life is more than 250000 km, the cost is less than 300000 yuan, the starting temperature of fuel cell engine is less than - 40 ℃, the maximum efficiency is more than 50%, the power density is more than 550W / kg and 600W / L, and the service life is more than 6000 hours.
From 2030 to 2035, the number of fuel cell vehicles in China will reach 1 million, the driving range of fuel cell commercial vehicles will exceed 800 km, the economy of heavy trucks will be less than 10 kg / 100 km, the service life will be more than 1 million km, and the cost will be less than 500000 yuan. The starting temperature of the fuel cell engine is less than - 40 ℃, the maximum efficiency is more than 60%, and the service life is more than 20000 hours. The driving range of fuel cell passenger car is more than 800 km, the economy is less than 0.8 kg / 100 km, the service life is more than 300000 km, the cost is less than 200000 yuan, the starting temperature of fuel cell engine is less than - 40 ℃, the maximum efficiency is more than 50%, and the service life is more than 6000 hours.
The third phase of the Yangtze River Delta Hydrogen Innovation Center officially commenced construction. The project's development will contribute to establishing the port area as the most advantageous hydrogen industry cluster within the Yangtze River Delta, with strengths in hydrogen sources, technology, and the industrial chain.